PCOD PCOS Symptoms

PCOS: Risk of Development of Diabetes

Risk of Development of Diabetes: POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME (PCOS)

It is a condition in which hormonal imbalance in females causes the cyst formation in the ovaries. It is categorized as a major cause of infertility in females.


Ovaries in females have follicles, which are tiny, fluid-filled sacs that hold the eggs. In normal condition, when an egg gets completely matured, the follicle releases the egg so that it can travel to the uterus for fertilization.

But in women with PCOS, immature follicles bunch together to form large cysts or lumps and the eggs mature within the bunched follicles, but the follicles don’t break open to release them.

As a result, women with PCOS often don’t have menstrual periods or only have periods on occasion. Because the eggs are not released, most have trouble getting pregnant.


PCOS is a complex disease with long-term consequences. Women with PCOS have to face number of metabolic and other implications. These women are at increased risk of developing:

  • Diabetes
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Hypertension
  • Dyslipidemia
  • Endometrial cancer
  • Ovarian cancer
  • Breast cancer


It is reported that any woman suffering from PCOS is at an increased risk of diabetes. Thus, sometimes diabetes becomes one of the diagnosis parameter of PCOS.

The prevalence of type 2 diabetes in women with PCOS is 7 times higher than other women. This Risk of Development of Diabetes increases to a much higher extent if the women are suffering from obesity too.

In women with PCOS, insulin resistance is the reason behind type 2 diabetes. The disturbed hormonal levels in PCOS interfere in the functioning of β-cells in pancreas. When β-cells get disturbed, they produce impaired amount of insulin which leads to insulin resistance. During insulin resistance, insulin does not work the way it should be. The insulin becomes unable to attach itself upon the insulin receptor site on cells. Due to this, the transfer of blood sugar from blood stream to cell is inhibited. Thus, sugar levels in the blood rises and causes type 2 diabetes.

High insulin levels in blood also reduce the fat breakdown and thus, fat starts to accumulate in the storage units/cells. This causes high cholesterol levels in the body and thus, obesity. This gives rise to more complex form of PCOS.


If diabetes develops in PCOS suffering females, they give rise to following conditions:

  • Hyperandrogenism
  • Reproductive disorders
  • Acne
  • Hirsutism

These complications worsen the condition of PCOS.


It has been reported that fenugreek is an effective remedy to treat PCOS patients. It is clinically proven safe and effective in the management of PCOS. It has been observed that Furocyst (fenugreek seed extract) significantly reduced the cyst size, showed complete dissolution of the cysts and reported regular menstrual cycle on completion of the treatment. It also increased insulin sensitizing activity & peripheral utilization of insulin thus helped to manage PCOS.

Regular exercise can reduce the Risk of Development of Diabetes. It is important for keeping the body healthy, especially when it comes to fighting obesity and type 2 diabetes and it has been shown to reduce the symptoms associated with PCOS. Exercise also helps the body to burn excess blood sugar and makes the cells more sensitive to insulin, allowing the body to use insulin more effectively.

A balanced diet that provides whole grains, lean proteins, healthy fats and plenty of fruits and vegetables is a key to reduce the risk of diabetes and manage weight in PCOS females.

Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathophysiology of this syndrome and thus, use of oral anti-diabetic drugs becomes important. The majority of studies have shown the reduction in the symptoms such as hyperandrogenism and cycle irregularities following the use of oral anti-diabetic drugs. The best-investigated drug is metformin.

Women with PCOS are also treated with birth control pills, which helps to regulate menstruation and clear acne.

Women with PCOS have been shown to have higher levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in their blood. AGEs are compounds formed when glucose binds with proteins, and are believed to contribute to certain degenerative diseases and aging. One small studyhas found that lowering dietary AGEs reduce insulin levels in women with PCOS.

Other treatment strategies include:

  • Androgen-blocking medications
  • Topical anti-hair-growth medications
  • Other excess hair treatments
  • Treatments for hair loss
  • Acne treatments
  • Removal of other skin problems


Click here

Risk of Development of Diabetes

PCOD PCOS Uncategorized


Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the commonest endocrine disorders in women of reproductive age. For the diagnosis of this syndrome the Rotterdam Criteria is used. According to this criterion, Polycystic Ovary Syndrome is diagnosed in the presence of at least two of three criteria:

  • Menstrual disorders or amenorrhoea with chronic lack of ovulation
  • Clinical and/or biochemical features of hyperandrogenism
  • The presence of polycystic ovaries in ultrasonography after the exclusion of other endocrine disorders

Prevalence: In the United States, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common endocrine disorders of reproductive-age women, with a prevalence of 4-12%. Up to 10% women are diagnosed with PCOS. In some European studies, the prevalence of PCOS has been reported to be 6.5-8%.

PCOS is a disease, which is associated with many complications such as obesity, diabetes, thyroid, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, etc. Bipolar disorder is one of the diseases associated with PCOS. It is not clear whether PCOS generates bipolar disorder or vice-versa but its occurrence is common in PCOS-affecting females.

Bipolar disorder 1

This disease is characterized by the occurrence of the periods of mania and depression. They are divided into:

  • Bipolar disorder I (full-blown mania and major depression),
  • Bipolar disorder II (hypomania and episodes of major depression)
  • Unspecified bipolar disorder (bipolar symptoms that do not meet criteria I or II)

Prevalence: During an epidemiological study, it was found the prevalence of bipolar disorder is very less. 1% of the population is found to be prevalent with bipolar disorder I, 1.1% with bipolar disorder II & 2.4% with bipolar disorder III. The overall prevalence of the bipolar disorder is 4.4% in US population. Bipolar disorder II has the highest persistence (73.2%), with Bipolar disorder I (63.3%) following second and bipolar sub-threshold third (59.5%).

Relation between PCOS & bipolar disorder

PCOS & bipolar disorder are reported to be linked to each other. It has been found from the clinical studies that women with bipolar disorder are at higher risk of PCOS and vice-versa. In a clinical study on 110 women with PCOS, it was reported that 88 women were suffering from bipolar disease also.

3Both PCOS and bipolar disorder show increased levels of stress and high cortisol. This could be due to a dysfunction in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. The HPA axis is responsible for stress response. Cortisol is released to handle stress. Then the body is supposed to calm itself down when the stressor no longer exists. When there is a problem with this cycle, like there is in bipolar disorder and PCOS, the cortisol sticks around. High cortisol levels can lead to many cognitive problems and depressive symptoms. The hormone imbalance could also lead to hyperandrogenism in PCOS.

Multiple studies have shown a link between PCOS and the drug valproic acid/valproate, which is an anticonvulsant, used to treat bipolar disorder as a mood stabilizer & epilepsy. One study showed that 43% of the women receiving valproate for epilepsy had polycystic ovaries. In bipolar disorder, one study found that 47% of patients taking valproate had PCOS compared to the 13% of patients who were not.

Women with bipolar disorder are almost twice as likely to have irregular menstrual cycles, than healthy controls. While medications can cause irregularities, irregular periods often occur before a patient is even diagnosed with bipolar disorder.


The following given questionnaire is helpful to screen women with bipolar disorder:

Positive screening for bipolar disorder on the basis of following scores:

  • YES to 7 or more than 13 points in Question 1
  • YES to Question 2

These symptoms can only be treated if regular therapy for PCOS is administered to the suffering females.








To know more, click on the link –