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Prostate Enlargement

What is the cause of Enlarged Prostate

What is the cause of an Enlarged Prostate?

The prostate gland is the gland, which is responsible for male fertility and is an integral part of the male reproductive system.  It is located between the bladder and penis just in front of the rectum. It is responsible for the nourishment and transportation of the sperms by secreting semen. As the size of prostate increases with age, urethra gets squeezed, leading to difficulty in urination. Prevalence of prostate related disorders is increasing day by day.

Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among males. It is treatable if diagnosed at an – early stage. Prostate cancer grows very slowly and has no symptoms in its early stages. Symptoms appear after some time & these could be:

  • Frequent urination: Increased size of prostate suppresses the urethra, which leads to improper urinary flow, leading to retention of urine in the bladder.
  • Enlarged prostate also leads to painful urination.
  • Reduced ejaculation: Production of semen is reduced in prostate cancer, leading to reduced ejaculation.
  • Erectile dysfunction: Severe cases of prostate cancer can also suffer from erectile dysfunctions.
  • Advanced prostate cancer can also cause pain in bones,  commonly in spine, femur, pelvis, and ribs.

Cause of Enlarged Prostate

Prostate cancer treatment: Nowadays, various methods are applied to prostate cancer treatment.

  • Watchful monitoring: Prostate cancer spreads slowly. It does not show early symptoms. A person should regularly visit the physician for the medical checkups regarding enlarged prostate, specifically after the age of 40 years.
  • Radical Prostatectomy: Radical Prostatectomy is the surgical removal of the prostate It is the fastest method of prostate cancer treatment.
  • Brachytherapy: In this, radioactive ovule is implanted in the prostate. This treatment is based on targeted radiation therapy.
  • Intensity-modulated radiation therapy: In this therapy, the beams of different intensities are applied to the growth in the prostate. The subject receives the radiation in combination with the hormone therapy for 4 to 6 months. The treatment plan depends upon the individual cases and the severity of cancer.
  • Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT): It is also known as androgen suppression therapy. Androgen is male hormones that can stimulate cancer cells. ADT is a treatment which reduces the effects of androgens.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH): Enlargement of the prostate is the second leading prostate complication in aged males. It is also called as benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). It is not the form of prostate cancer, but a normal part of the aging process. The cells in the prostate gland start multiplying leading to increase in its size.

Symptoms of an enlarged prostate

The symptoms and cause of Enlarged Prostate are:

  • Frequent urge to urinate: The increased size of prostate presses the urethra, which makes discomfort for a person to urinate.
  • Leaking of urine: Enlargement of the prostate gland does not allow the urethra to open properly during urination. Due to which small amount of urine resides in urethra, which leads to leakage of urine
  • Blood in urine: Blockage of urination sometimes damage the blood vessels and lead to blood in the urine.
  • Difficulty in maintaining an erection

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) causes: These are the cause of Enlarged Prostate (BPH) Benign prostatic hyperplasia:

  • Age is the most common factor for prostate complications.
  • Family history: If you have any family history of prostate complications, you should consult the doctor for the further prevention steps or regular checkups for prostate complications. 10-20% cases of prostate complications are due to inherited mutations.
  • Hormone: A metabolite of testosterone named as dihydrotestosterone (DHT) is a crucial mediator of prostatic growth. DHT is synthesized in the prostate gland from the circulating testosterone by the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase. DHT sticks to the androgen receptors and triggers a release of growth factors which are mitogenic to epithelial cells, initiating multiplication of cells ultimately leading to an enlarged prostate.

 

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) treatment:

There are several approaches to the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

  • Prostatectomy is a very common surgical operation. In this operation, an inner portion of the prostate is surgically removed.
  • Catheterization: Patient suffering from BPH find difficulty in urination. Catheterization is a technique applied to such patients. It is used to relieve urinary bladder in case of urinary retention.

 

Medication used in BPH treatment

  • 5-alpha reductase inhibitors: Physicians prescribe the 5alpha-reductase inhibitors to relieve patients of  BPH symptoms and to improve the urinary flow by reducing the size of an enlarged prostate.
  • Alpha-adrenergic blocker: These drugs relax the smooth muscle of the prostate gland, increase urinary flow and decrease the frequency of urination.

The prostate gland is an integral part of our body as well as the reproductive system. Prostate complications are increased as we age. Regular health checkup, proper exercise, and a better diet plan can save you from prostate complications.